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S>8            MY    COUNTRY    AND    MY    PEOPLE

of several new canals and dams, and the building of the city
of Peking under the Emperor Yunglo of the Ming Dynasty, who
was also famous for his great Yunglo Library.

These cycles comprise: (i) from the Ch'in Dynasty to the
end of the Six Dynasties and the Tartar invasion (221 B.C.-
A.D. 588) covering about 830 years; (2) from the Sui Dynasty
to the Mongol invasion (589-1367), covering about 780 years;
and (3) the modern cycle from the Ming Dynasty to the present
time, a cycle which is yet uncompleted, but which has so far
unfolded itself in the last six hundred years with amazing
fidelity to the previous pattern. The peace of five hundred
years which was granted us under the Ming and Manchu
Dynasties seems to have run its due course, and with the
Taiping Rebellion in the 1850*8, which marked the first big
wave of internecine wars, we are on the crescendo of disorder
and of internecine strife, which so far has lived up to its tradi-
tion in the removal of the capital from Peking to Nanking
in 1927.

It is almost prophetic to note that a division between North
and South and the subjugation of Northern China by a foreign
race for the outstanding two hundred years have not yet

The following diagrams are reproduced here partly for their
intrinsic interest, and partly because they are the best short
summary of China's political history of over two thousand
years within the scope of a printed page. The curves represent
the frequency of wars in China proper.

Dr. Lee also mentions the fact that the same parallelism may
be observed in the Chou Period preceding the first cycle in the
diagram. The Chou Dynasty, which represented the first bloom
of Chinese culture, lasted officially 900 years, beginning in the
year 1122 B.C. After the first four hundred and fifty years of
comparative peace and expansion inside China, the capital
was moved east owing to pressure from the north-west in 770
B.C., from which date on we see increasing wars and strifes
among the kingdoms, with the central government steadily

1A mixture of Chinese and Japanese blood, though very rare, has already
produced two rather noteworthy Chinese, Koxinga, a good general, carrying
on a losing campaign against the Manchus, and Su Manshu, a delicate poet in
the beginning of the present century.